http://www.pro-bono-publico.de/projects/ftpd.html

FTP Daemon

Marc Huber

$Id: manual.xml,v 1.25 2015/02/01 09:29:01 marc Exp $

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1. Download
2. Supported commands
3. Operation
3.1. Command line syntax
3.2. Signals
3.3. Event mechanism selection
4. Configuration directives
4.1. Global Configuration
4.1.1. Access Control Lists
4.2. ACL-based Configuration
4.3. Path-rewriting using PCRE
4.4. TLS support
4.5. MAVIS Configuration
5. Wildcard patterns
6. Magic cookie substitution
7. Sample configuration
8. Railroad Diagrams
9. Bugs
10. References
11. Copyrights and Acknowledgements

1. Introduction

This FTP daemon was written from scratch. The list of supported features includes:


1.1. Download

Source and documentation are available from http://www.pro-bono-publico.de/projects/.


2. Supported commands

The daemon support several standards and drafts:

Various SITE commands are available:


3. Operation

This section gives a brief and basic overview how to run ftpd.

In earlier versions, ftpd wasn't a standalone program but had to be invoked by spawnd. This has changed, as spawnd is now part of the ftpd binary. However, using a dedicated spawnd process is still possible and, more importantly, the spawnd configuration options and documentation remain valid.

ftpd may use auxilliary MAVIS backend modules for authentication and authorization.


3.1. Command line syntax

The only mandatory argument is the path to the configuration file:

ftpd [ -P ] [ -d level ]  [ -i child_id ] configuration-file [ id ]

If the program was compiled with CURL support, configuration-file may be an URL.

Keep the -P option in mind ‐ it is imperative that the configuration file supplied is syntactically correct, as the daemon won't start if there are any parsing errors at start-up.

The -d switch enables debugging. You most likely don't want to use this. Read the source if you need to.

The -i option is only honoured if the build-in spawnd functionality is used. In that case, it selects the configuration ID for ftpd, while the optional last argument id sets the ID of the spawnd configuration section.


3.2. Signals

Both the master (that's the process running the spawnd code) and the child processes (running the ftpd code) intercept the SIGHUP signal:

  • The master process will restart upon reception of SIGHUP, re-reading the configuration file. The child processes will recognize that the master process is no longer available. It will continue to serve the existing connections and terminate when idle.

  • If SIGHUP is sent to a child process it will stop accepting new connections from its master process. It will continue to serve the existing connections and terminate when idle.


3.3. Event mechanism selection

Several level-triggered event mechanisms are supported. By default, the one best suited for your operating system will be used. However, you may use the environment variable IO_POLL_MECHANISM to select a specific one.

The following event mechanisms are supported (in order of preference):

  • port (Sun Solaris 10 and higher only, IO_POLL_MECHANISM=32)

  • kqueue (*BSD and Darwin only, IO_POLL_MECHANISM=1)

  • /dev/poll (Sun Solaris only, IO_POLL_MECHANISM=2)

  • epoll (Linux only, IO_POLL_MECHANISM=4)

  • poll (IO_POLL_MECHANISM=8)

  • select (IO_POLL_MECHANISM=16)

Environment variables can be set in the configuration file at top-level:

setenv IO_POLL_MECHANISM = 4

4. Configuration directives

Several configuration options are very similar in syntax. For that reason, I'll use a couple of shortcuts below:


4.1. Global Configuration

The following table summarizes configuration options with plain

Variable = Argument

syntax:

Variable Description
mimetypes This specifies the path to a mime.types file. Mime-types are used for the media-type fact in MLST/MLSD replies.
Type of Argument Path
Default Value none
Example:
mimetypes = /etc/mime.types
buffer size Permits tuning of buffer allocation size.
Type of Argument Integer
Default Value 32k
buffer mmap-size Permits tuning of buffer allocation size. Setting mmap-size to 0 will cause whole files to be memory-mapped. However, if you do so on a 32bit system, it may run out of address space.
Type of Argument Integer
Default Value 256k (on 64bit systems: unlimited)
hide-version This options controls whether the daemon will omit its version number in the HELP response.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value no
retire If set, the daemon will terminate after processing count sessions, what may be useful to remedy the effects of memory leaks.
Type of Argument Integer
Default Value unset
log-format command Sets format for logging to syslog.
Type of Argument String
Default Value "CMD|%i|%r|%I|%t|%u|%C|%c"
log-format event Sets format for logging to syslog.
Type of Argument String
Default Value "EVE|%i|%r|%I|%u|%t|%d"
log-format transfer Sets format for logging to syslog.
Type of Argument String
Default Value "XFR|%i|%r|%I|%t|%u|%d|%m|%b/%s|%D|%c"
log-format delimiter All occurrences of the delimiter character will be replaced by the substitute character before logging.
Type of Argument Character
Default Value "|"
log-format substitute All occurrences of the delimiter character will be replaced by the substitute character before logging.
Type of Argument Character
Default Value "_"
nlst This directive may be used to limit output of the NLST command to regular files. It is provided for wu-ftpd compatibility.
Argument files-only
Default Value unset
use-mmap On systems supporting memory-mapped I/O, the daemon may use mmap(2) for read-only file access. Preliminary tests indicated that mmap(2)/write(2) improves binary file transfer performance by about 12% compared to read(2)/write(2). ASCII transfers and checksum calculations show better performance, too. The daemon will automatically fall back to standard I/O if the mmap(2) syscall fails.
Argument Boolean
Default Value yes
use-sendfile On systems supporting sendfile(2), the daemon may use that syscall for binary file transfers. Preliminary tests indicated that sendfile(2) improves performance by about 18% compared to read(2)/write(2), and by about 5% compared to mmap(2)/write(2). The daemon will automatically fall back to memory mapped or standard I/O if the sendfile(2) syscall fails.
Argument Boolean
Default Value yes

4.1.1. Access Control Lists

Various configuration directives may depend on ACLs. ACL syntax is

acl ACLName = { ... }

To be more precisely, the above doesn't specify a complete ACL, but adds a ACL rule to ACLName. As such, an acl declaration may be used multiple times, and the ACL rule will just be added to the end of the current rule list. Likewise, ACL rules are evaluated sequentially, in the order of definition.

Inside the curly brackets, recognized matching criteria are:

  • src = [ not ] CIDR

    (matches source address of client)

  • dst = [ not ] CIDR

    (matches local destination address)

  • authenticated = [ not ] ( yes | no | real | anon )

    (matches if the user has authenticated as a real or anonymous user; yes matches both)

  • protected = Boolean

    (matches according to the TLS protection status)

  • time = [ not ] TimeSpecName

    Matches depending on current time.

    timespec objects may be used for time based profile assignments. Both cron and Taylor-UUCP syntax are supported, see you local crontab(5) and/or UUCP man pages for details. Syntax:

    timespec = timespec_name{ "entry" [ ... ] }

    Example:

    # Working hours are from Mo-Fr from 9 to 16:59, and
    # on Saturdays from 9 to 12:59:
    timespec = workinghours {
        "* 9-16 * * 1-5"   # or: "* 9-16 * * Mon-Fri"
        "* 9-12 * * 6"     # or: "* 9-12 * * Sat"
    }
    
    timespec = sunday { "* * * * 0" }
    
    timespec = example {
        Wk2305-0855,Sa,Su2305-1655
        Wk0905-2255,Su1705-2255
        Any
    }
    
  • user = [ not ] [ regex ] [ caseless ] User

    (matches current user name verbatim or as POSIX regular expression)

  • arg = [ not ] [ regex ] [ caseless ] Arg

    (matches command argument verbatim or as POSIX regular expression)

  • path = [ not ] [ regex ] [ caseless ] Path

    (matches path verbatim or as POSIX regular expression)

  • host = [ not ] [ regex ] [ caseless ] Host

    (matches virtual host name verbatim or as POSIX regular expression)

For src and dst multiple definitions may be given within the same rule.

Example:

acl rfc1918 = {
    src = 127.0.0.1
    src = 10.0.0.0/8
    src = 172.16.0.0/12
    src = 192.168.0.0/16
}

acl ipv6_any = {
    src = ::0
}

acl notsunday = {
    time = workinghours
}

acl test001 = {
    arg regex = ^.cshrc$
    authenticated = real
}

acl test002 = {
    user = root
    authenticated = real
}

These are predefined:

acl = secure { protected = yes }
acl = any { }
acl = connect { }
acl = real { authenticated = real }
acl = anon { authenticated = anon }
acl = login { authenticated = yes }

4.2. ACL-based Configuration

The following table summarizes configuration options with

Variable [ acl [ not ] AclName ] = Argument

syntax. Example:

access acl not someacl = permit
access acl otheracl = permit
access = deny
Variable Description
access Grants initial connection setup based on ACLs.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value permit
address-mismatch Permit or deny address mismatches between data and control channel, only necessary for server-to-server transfers.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value deny
ascii-size-limit Sets an upper file size limit for size calculations in ASCII transfer mode.
Type of Argument Number
Default Value unset
authentication-failures max Sets an upper limit for authentication failures. Stop verifiying authentication after limit is exceeded, just reject.
Type of Argument Number
Default Value 5
authentication-failures bye Terminate connection after the specified number of authentication failures.
Type of Argument Number
Default Value 10
Example:
authentication-failures bye = 5
auto-conversion checksum Allow or deny on-the-fly calculation of checksum (*.md5, *.crc) files.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value deny
auto-conversion ( gzip | deflate) Allow or deny on-the-fly compression to gzip (deflate) format by appending .gz to the filename.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value deny
Example:
acl may-compress = { path = regex "\.(txt|doc)$" }
auto-conversion gzip acl may-compress = permit
banner Specifies a file to be displayed before the initial greeting message. Magic cookie substitution applies.
Type of Argument Path
Default Value unset
banner-action Terminates the session after displaying a banner.
Argument logout
Default Value unset
binary-only Rejects non-binary file transfers. Will also be evaluated for SIZE calculations in ASCII mode.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value deny
Example:
acl binary = { path = regex "\.(gif|jpg|mp3)$" }
binary-only acl binary = permit
check-uid If enabled, only files belonging to the actual user are accessible.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value no
check-gid If enabled, only files belonging to the actual user's group are accessible.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value no
check-perm If enabled, only publicly accessible files are permitted.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value no
chmod-mask ( file | directory ) Bits set in mask can not be removed using the SITE UMASK or SITE CHMOD commands.
Type of Argument Octal
Default Value unset
Example:
chmod-mask file = 0600
deflate-level ( min | max | default ) These parameters set and/or limit the deflate compression level for both transmission-mode = z and auto-conversion gzip. Valid levels are from 0 to 9.
Type of Argument Number
Default Value unset
Example:
deflate-level default = 7
dotfiles Permit or deny access to files starting with a dot.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value deny
fake-group Sets the group name to display in directory listings if resolving the GID is not possible or deactivated with the resolve-ids clause.
Type of Argument String
Default Value ftp
fake-owner Sets the user name to display in directory listings if resolving the UID is not possible or deactivated with the resolve-ids clause.
Type of Argument String
Default Value ftp
goodbye Specifies the absolute path to some file to be displayed at logout time. Magic cookie substitution applies.
Type of Argument Path
Default Value unset
greeting Specifies the initial greeting message in 220 response. Magic cookie substitution applies.
Type of Argument String
Default Value "Welcome, pilgrim."
Example:
greeting = "%L FTP server (Version %V)"
hostname Sets the the virtual hostname for the current session.
Type of Argument String
Default Value "misconfigured.host"
ident If enabled, ftpd will attempt to query the remote RFC1413 daemon (if any) for the remote user name, which is informal only and may be used in banners using the %u modifier. The ident query is performed asynchronously and doesn't defer the login process.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value no
maintainer Sets the site maintainers email address.
Type of Argument String
Default Value unset
log Enables logging for the specified LogTypes (command, transfer, event, ident)
Type of Argument LogType
Default Value unset
Example:
log acl someacl = ident command transfer
passive address Specify the IP address used in PASV replies. Might be useful for NAT.
Type of Argument IPAddress
Default Value unset
passive port ( min | max ) Specify the port range for PASV replies.
Type of Argument Number
Default Value unset
readme Specifies the file to be displayed upon entering a directory. That file needs to be world-readable, or it may or may not be displayed. If Filecontains '%s', the daemon will substitute that character sequence with and '-' plus the current language abbreviation, e.g. '-en' or '-de'. If that fails, '%s' will be substituted with an empty string. More than one occurence of '%s' in file will most likely result in a segmentation fault. Magic cookie substitution applies.
Type of Argument File
Default Value unset
readme-once Display the readme file only once.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value unset
readme-notify Notify that the readme file exists, but don't display it.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value unset
resolve-ids If set to deny hides real file ownerships.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value deny
shape-bandwidth Establish a session-based upper limit for outgoing bandwidth. The argument is the absolute bandwidth available for the session.
Type of Argument Number
Default Value unset
symlinks

Specify which symbolic links to trust. This option is quite critical for system security and defaults to none. Recognized keywords:

  • all ‐ accept all symbolic links

  • none ‐ ignore all symbolic links

  • root ‐ accept symbolic links owned by root

  • same ‐ accept symbolic links owned by owner of target

  • real ‐ accept symbolic links for non-anonymous users

Type of Argument SymlinkType
Default Value unset
Example:
symlinks = root same real
accept timeout Sets the timeout for establishing incoming data connections.
Type of Argument Seconds
Default Value 30
connect timeout Sets the timeout for establishing outgoing data connections.
Type of Argument Seconds
Default Value 30
idle timeout ( default | min | max ) This option sets the default, minimum and maximum session timeouts, the latter two for SITE IDLE.
Type of Argument Seconds
Default Value 600
transmission-mode z Enables/disables the Z transmission mode. When enabled, deflate data transfer compression may be used. This option is only available if the software was compiled with zlib support.
Type of Argument Boolean
Default Value deny
umask Specifies the default umask. Both MAVIS derived umasks and umasks set with the SITE UMASK command have higher priority. Defaults to 022
Type of Argument Octal
Default Value 022
welcome Specifies a file to be displayed just after login. Magic cookie substitution applies.
Type of Argument Path
Default Value unset
welcome-action Terminates the session after displaying the welcome message.
Argument logout
Default Value unset

FTP commands may depend on ACLs, too. Syntax for that is:

command = [ site ] Command { ( acl [ not ] ACLName = [ log ] ( permit | deny ) )* }

Example:

command = site chmod { acl connect = log permit }
command = pass { acl not real = log permit }

4.3. Path-rewriting using PCRE

If compiled with PCRE (Perl Compatible Regular Expressions) support,

rewrite perl-regex replacement [ flags ]

may be used to implement Perl-like file path rewriting rules. Valid flags are L (last), N (next) and R (reject). $n (or ${n} for n > 9) in replacement will be substituted by the corresponding match in perl-regex. This option is available only if PCRE support is compiled in. Example:

rewrite ^/ftp/mirror-(.*)$    /ftp/mirror/$1
rewrite ^/tmp/test/(..)$      /tmp/test
rewrite ^/tmp/test/../.*$     $0                     L
rewrite ^/tmp/test/(..)(.*)   /tmp/gaga/${1}/${1}$2  L
rewrite ^/tmp/test123         $0                     R

4.4. TLS support

If compiled with TLS support, various TLS related parameters may be specified. Most of the options should obvious enough:

  • tls certfile = CertFile

  • tls keyfile = KeyFile

  • tls passphrase = PassPhrase

  • tls auth = Boolean

  • tls required = Boolean

  • tls cafile = CAFile

  • tls capath = CAPath

  • tls depth = Depth

  • tls ciphers = Ciphers

  • tls old-draft = Boolean

The auth keyword enables client certificate based authentication. This requires some further configuration within the auth MAVIS module. Certificate based authentication will require at least OpenSSL version 0.9.7.

If old-draft is specified, the daemon responds with a 234 instead of a 334 message after successfully negotiating TLS. This enables use of clients conforming to older versions of draft-murray-auth-ftp-ssl. It is recommended not to use that option, but to fix the client.

keyfile may be omitted, it defaults to CertFile.

All this is unset by default.


4.5. MAVIS Configuration

Directives to configure the MAVIS backends are:

  • mavis module = module { ... }

    Load MAVIS module module. See the MAVIS documentation for confi guration guidance.

  • mavis path = path

    Add path to the search-path for MAVIS modules.


5. Wildcard patterns

Limited file name globbing for the LIST and NLST commands is implemented for files in the current working directory.

Recognized glob patterns are:

For the CWD command only, a tilde (~) character at the beginning of the argument expands to the users home directory.


6. Magic cookie substitution

The magic cookies used are partially compatible to those utilized by wu-ftpd. Text and files specified using the configuration directives banner, goodbye, greeting, readme and welcome are subject to cookie substitution.

Available conversions are:


7. Sample configuration

This is from the ftpd/sample directory:

#!../obj.darwin-9.6.0-i386/ftpd
id = spawnd {
        listen = { port = 2121 }
        spawn = {
                instances min = 1
        }
        background = no
}

id = ftpd {
        debug = NET CMD
        mavis path = ../../mavis/obj.darwin-9.6.0-i386

        mavis module = anonftp {
                userid = 100
                groupid = mail
                home = /
                root = /tmp/
                upload = /tmp/incoming/
        }
        symlinks = all
        check-uid = no
        check-gid = no
        check-perm = no
}

8. Railroad Diagrams

Railroad diagram: AcceptExpr

Railroad diagram: AccessExpr

Railroad diagram: AclDecl

Railroad diagram: AclExpr

Railroad diagram: AddressMismatchExpr

Railroad diagram: AllowDotfilesExpr

Railroad diagram: AsciiSizeExpr

Railroad diagram: AuthFailExpr

Railroad diagram: AutoConvExpr

Railroad diagram: BannerActionExpr

Railroad diagram: BannerExpr

Railroad diagram: BinaryOnlyExpr

Railroad diagram: CheckExpr

Railroad diagram: ChmodMaskExpr

Railroad diagram: CmdAuth

Railroad diagram: CmdAuthExpr

Railroad diagram: ConnectExpr

Railroad diagram: DeflateLevelExpr

Railroad diagram: FakeIdExpr

Railroad diagram: FtpdConfig

Railroad diagram: GlobalDecl

Railroad diagram: GoodbyeExpr

Railroad diagram: GreetingExpr

Railroad diagram: HostnameExpr

Railroad diagram: IdentExpr

Railroad diagram: IdleExpr

Railroad diagram: LogExpr

Railroad diagram: LogFormatExpr

Railroad diagram: MaintainerExpr

Railroad diagram: PassiveExpr

Railroad diagram: ReadmeNotifyExpr

Railroad diagram: ReadmeOnceExpr

Railroad diagram: ResolveIDsExpr

Railroad diagram: RetireExpr

Railroad diagram: RewriteExpr

Railroad diagram: ShapeBwExpr

Railroad diagram: SymlinksExpr

Railroad diagram: SyslogExpr

Railroad diagram: TLSExpr

Railroad diagram: TransModeExpr

Railroad diagram: UmaskExpr

Railroad diagram: WelcomeActionExpr


9. Bugs


10. References

The FTP Daemon hopefully conforms to the following standards and drafts:


11. Copyrights and Acknowledgements

Please see the source for copyright and licensing information of individual files.


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